Fundamental

What is System Information?

 

System Information (also known as msinfo32.exe) shows details about your computer’s hardware configuration, computer components, and software, including drivers.

System Information lists categories in the left pane and details about each category in the right pane. The categories include:

System Summary. Displays general information about your computer and the operating system, such as the computer name and manufacturer, the type of basic input/output system (BIOS) your computer uses, and the amount of memory that’s installed.

Hardware Resources. Displays advanced details about your computer’s hardware, and is intended for IT professionals.

Components. Displays information about disk drives, sound devices, modems, and other components installed on your computer.

Software Environment. Displays information about drivers, network connections, and other program-related details.

To find a specific detail in System Information, type the information you’re looking for in the Find what box at the bottom of the window. For example, to find your computer’s Internet protocol (IP) address, type ip address in the Find what box, and then click Find.

For technical information—intended for administrators and IT professionals—about how to use System Information, go to the Microsoft website for IT professionals.

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What is CMOS?

 

Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor, or CMOS, typically refers to a battery-powered memory chip in your computer that stores startup information. Your computer’s basic input/output system (BIOS) uses this information when starting your computer.

CMOS-related error messages could be caused by a faulty or discharged battery. The battery can become discharged if your computer has been turned off for a very long time. To resolve CMOS-related errors, check the information that came with your computer or contact your computer manufacturer. Because your CMOS settings are specific to your computer’s hardware, Microsoft can’t provide specific instructions for changing them.

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What is a firewall?

 

A firewall is software or hardware that checks information coming from the Internet or a network, and then either blocks it or allows it to pass through to your computer, depending on your firewall settings.
A firewall can help prevent hackers or malicious software (such as worms) from gaining access to your computer through a network or the Internet. A firewall can also help stop your computer from sending malicious software to other computers.

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What is a theme?

A theme is a combination of pictures, colors, and sounds on your computer. It includes a desktop background, a screen saver, a window border color, and a sound scheme. Some themes might also include desktop icons and mouse pointers.

Windows comes with several themes. You can choose an Aero theme to personalize your computer, the Windows 7 Basic theme if your computer is performing slowly, or a High Contrast theme to make the items on your screen easier to see. Click a theme to apply it to your desktop.

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What is a proxy server?

A proxy server is a computer that functions as an intermediary between a web browser (such as Internet Explorer) and the Internet. Proxy servers help improve web performance by storing a copy of frequently used webpages. When a browser requests a webpage stored in the proxy server’s collection (its cache), it’s provided by the proxy server, which is faster than going to the web. Proxy servers also help improve security by filtering out some web content and malicious software.

Proxy servers are used mostly by networks in organizations and companies. Typically, people connecting to the Internet from home will not use a proxy server.

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What is Safe mode?

Safe mode is a troubleshooting option for Windows that starts your computer in a limited state. Only the basic files and drivers necessary to run Windows are started. The words Safe Mode appear in the corners of your monitor to identify which Windows mode you’re using.

If an existing problem doesn’t reappear when you start in safe mode, you can eliminate the default settings and basic device drivers as possible causes. If you don’t know the cause of the problem, you can use the process of elimination to help you find the problem. Try starting all of the programs you commonly use, including the programs in your Startup folder, one by one to see if a program might be the cause of the problem.

If your computer automatically starts in safe mode without prompting, a problem with your computer might be preventing Windows from starting normally. If you think the cause of the problem might be a recently installed program or device, try using Recovery in Control Panel. For more information, see What is Recovery?

For more information about working in safe mode, see the following Help topics:

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What are flicks?

If you have a Tablet PC or touchscreen, you can make gestures called flicks with your tablet pen or finger to quickly navigate and perform shortcuts. There are two types of flicks: navigational (which include drag up, drag down, move back, and move forward) and editing (which include copy, paste, undo, and delete). For example, you can drag up or down on a page, move back or forward in a browser window, or paste an item into a document—all with a flick of your pen or finger. To learn how to use flicks, see Practice using flicks.

Navigate through browser windows and documents

Use your tablet pen or finger to quickly move through a browser, a document, or a playlist without using a scroll bar. For example, an upward flick moves a page down and a downward flick moves a page up. In a browser, a flick to the left moves forward to the next page and a flick to the right moves back to the previous page.

Perform common actions

Instead of tapping a menu item or a button on a toolbar to perform a common action (such as copy, paste, undo, or delete), you can do these things with a flick of your tablet pen.

Customize flicks

The actions that navigational and editing flicks perform are assigned by default, but you can customize the flicks to perform actions that you do often. For example, if you frequently use keyboard shortcuts, such as F5 or Ctrl+B, you can assign these shortcuts to one of the flicks directions. For more information, see Customize flicks.

What is Storage Device ? How many types of storeage ? Expain.

Your computer has one or more disk drives—devices that store information on a metal or plastic disk. The disk preserves the information even when your computer is turned off.

Hard disk drive

Your computer’s hard disk drive stores information on a hard disk—a rigid platter or stack of platters with a magnetic surface. Because hard disks can hold massive amounts of information, they usually serve as your computer’s primary means of storage, holding almost all of your programs and files. The hard disk drive is normally located inside the system unit.

CD and DVD drives

Nearly all computers today come equipped with a CD or DVD drive, usually located on the front of the system unit. CD drives use lasers to read (retrieve) data from a CD; many CD drives can also write (record) data onto CDs. If you have a recordable disk drive, you can store copies of your files on blank CDs. You can also use a CD drive to play music CDs on your computer.

CD

DVD drives can do everything that CD drives can, plus read DVDs. If you have a DVD drive, you can watch movies on your computer. Many DVD drives can record data onto blank DVDs.

Tip

If you have a recordable CD or DVD drive, periodically back up (copy) your important files to CDs or DVDs. That way, if your hard disk ever fails, you won’t lose your data.

Floppy disk drive

Floppy disk drives store information on floppy disks, also called floppies or diskettes. Compared to CDs and DVDs, floppy disks can store only a small amount of data. They also retrieve information more slowly and are more prone to damage. For these reasons, floppy disk drives are less popular than they used to be, although some computers still include them.

Floppy disk

Why are these disks called “floppy” disks? The outside is made of hard plastic, but that’s just the sleeve. The disk inside is made of a thin, flexible vinyl material.

Mouse

A mouse is a small device used to point to and select items on your computer screen. Although mice come in many shapes, the typical mouse does look a bit like an actual mouse. It’s small, oblong, and connected to the system unit by a long wire that resembles a tail. Some newer mice are wireless. A mouse usually has two buttons: A primary button (usually the left button) and a secondary button. Many mice also have a wheel between the two buttons, which allows you to scroll smoothly through screens of information. Mouse pointersWhen you move the mouse with your hand, a pointer on your screen moves in the same direction. (The pointer’s appearance might change depending on where it’s positioned on your screen.) When you want to select an item, you point to the item and then click (press and release) the primary button. Pointing and clicking with your mouse is the main way to interact with your computer. For more information, see Using your mouse.

Keyboard

A keyboard is used mainly for typing text into your computer. Like the keyboard on a typewriter, it has keys for letters and numbers, but it also has special keys:

The function keys, found on the top row, perform different functions depending on where they are used.

The numeric keypad, located on the right side of most keyboards, allows you to enter numbers quickly.

The navigation keys, such as the arrow keys, allow you to move your position within a document or webpage.

Keyboard

You can also use your keyboard to perform many of the same tasks you can perform with a mouse. For more information, see Using your keyboard.

Monitor

A monitor displays information in visual form, using text and graphics. The portion of the monitor that displays the information is called the screen. Like a television screen, a computer screen can show still or moving pictures.

There are two basic types of monitors: CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors and the newer LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors. Both types produce sharp images, but LCD monitors have the advantage of being much thinner and lighter.

Printer

A printer transfers data from a computer onto paper. You don’t need a printer to use your computer, but having one allows you to print e‑mail, cards, invitations, announcements, and other material. Many people also like being able to print their own photos at home.

The two main types of printers are inkjet printers and laser printers. Inkjet printers are the most popular printers for the home. They can print in black and white or in full color and can produce high-quality photographs when used with special paper. Laser printers are faster and generally better able to handle heavy use.

Speakers

Speakers are used to play sound. They can be built into the system unit or connected with cables. Speakers allow you to listen to music and hear sound effects from your computer.

Modem

To connect your computer to the Internet, you need a modem. A modem is a device that sends and receives computer information over a telephone line or high-speed cable. Modems are sometimes built into the system unit, but higher-speed modems are usually separate components.

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How many types of computer ?

1. Desktop computers

2. Laptop computers and small notebook PCs

3. Smartphones

4. Handheld computers

5. Tablet PCs

Types of computers

Computers range in size and capability. At one end of the scale are supercomputers, very large computers with thousands of linked microprocessors that perform extremely complex calculations. At the other end are tiny computers embedded in cars, TVs, stereo systems, calculators, and appliances. These computers are built to perform a limited number of tasks.

The personal computer, or PC, is designed to be used by one person at a time. This section describes the various kinds of personal computers: desktops, laptops, handheld computers, and Tablet PCs.

Desktop computers

Desktop computers are designed for use at a desk or table. They are typically larger and more powerful than other types of personal computers. Desktop computers are made up of separate components. The main component, called the system unit, is usually a rectangular case that sits on or underneath a desk. Other components, such as the monitor, mouse, and keyboard, connect to the system unit.

Laptop computers and small notebook PCs

Laptop computers are lightweight mobile PCs with a thin screen. Laptops can operate on batteries, so you can take them anywhere. Unlike desktops, laptops combine the CPU, screen, and keyboard in a single case. The screen folds down onto the keyboard when not in use.

Small notebook PCs (often referred to asmini-notebooks), are small, affordable laptops that are designed to perform a limited number of tasks. They’re usually less powerful than a laptop, so they’re used mainly to browse the web and check e‑mail.

Smartphones

Smartphones are mobile phones that have some of the same capabilites as a computer. You can use a smartphone to make telephone calls, access the Internet, organize contact information, send e‑mail and text messages, play games, and take pictures. Smartphones usually have a keyboard and a large screen.

Handheld computers

Handheld computers, also called personal digital assistants (PDAs), are battery-powered computers small enough to carry almost anywhere. Although not as powerful as desktops or laptops, handheld computers are useful for scheduling appointments, storing addresses and phone numbers, and playing games. Some have more advanced capabilities, such as making telephone calls or accessing the Internet. Instead of keyboards, handheld computers have touch screens that you use with your finger or a stylus (a pen-shaped pointing tool).

Tablet PCs

Tablet PCs are mobile PCs that combine features of laptops and handheld computers. Like laptops, they’re powerful and have a built-in screen. Like handheld computers, they allow you to write notes or draw pictures on the screen, usually with a tablet pen instead of a stylus. They can also convert your handwriting into typed text. Some Tablet PCs are “convertibles” with a screen that swivels and unfolds to reveal a keyboard underneath.

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What is Computer ? Expain Here…

Computers are machines that perform tasks or calculations according to a set of instructions, or programs. The first fully electronic computers, introduced in the 1940s, were huge machines that required teams of people to operate. Compared to those early machines, today’s computers are amazing. Not only are they thousands of times faster, they can fit on your desk, on your lap, or even in your pocket.

Computers work through an interaction of hardware and software. Hardware refers to the parts of a computer that you can see and touch, including the case and everything inside it. The most important piece of hardware is a tiny rectangular chip inside your computer called the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor. It’s the “brain” of your computer—the part that translates instructions and performs calculations. Hardware items such as your monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, and other components are often called hardware devices, or devices.

Software refers to the instructions, or programs, that tell the hardware what to do. A word-processing program that you can use to write letters on your computer is a type of software. The operating system (OS) is software that manages your computer and the devices connected to it. Windows is a well-known operating system.

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